Knee pain is one of the most frequent in the human body. It affects both the elderly, usually having a degenerative origin, and young individuals usually due to traumatic injuries or problems with the alignment of the kneecap (so-called patella syndromes), explains the orthopaedic surgeon in Delhi.
Generally, knee pain (whether mild or severe) has a pathological meaning, that is, there is a pathology or disease that is at the origin of it.
Constant knee pain is an indication (or symptom) that something is not right. In other situations, knee pain can be caused only by a specific situation of overload of effort, such as what occurs on a longer walk, or climbing inclines, or carrying excessive weights or even in more intense sports training. In these cases, a period of rest or sport break may be enough to resolve the situation, advices the orthopaedic in Delhi.
For a better nosological characterization, there are several classifications of knee pain that systematize its various parameters:
- Knee pain location (anterior; posterior; medial or lateral interline; collateral ligament insertions; pes anserinus; iliotibial band; inferior pole of kneecap);
- Intensity of knee pain (mild; moderate; severe);
- Character of pain (prick; penny);
- Evolution time (acute or chronic);
- Laterality (left knee pain or right knee pain);
- Triggering factor (eg knee pain when squatting; knee pain after walking);
- Antalgic position (eg, improving pain with a bent knee);
- Response to anti-inflammatory medication;
- Accompanying symptoms (eg, crepitus; effusion; knee bounce or failure; blockage).
Causes of knee pain
The causes of knee pain can be numerous. Here are just a few of the most frequent ones.
Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent causes of knee pain. Degenerative changes in the knee cartilage cause a “swollen” knee, due to the presence of joint effusion, chronic pain, of a slow evolution in the knee, of a mechanical nature (that is, which worsens with movements) in addition to joint crepitus (which the patients describe as “pain in the knees with popping”), explains the orthopaedic in Delhi.
A sudden, sharp, internal pain or pain in the back when the knee bends is usually due to a meniscus tear. In this picture of knee pain, other symptoms are present such as edema (“swollen knee or knee swelling”) from intra-articular effusion. A baker’s cyst, which occurs when this fluid accumulates in a pouch behind the knee, can also be a cause of pain and discomfort later on, states the orthopaedic surgeon in Delhi.
Knee sprains can range from a simple strain, partial tear to a complete tear of the collateral ligaments, which result in pain with 2 distinct locations: medial knee pain and lateral knee pain. The cruciate ligaments are intraarticular and can rupture without causing great pain, so their clinical diagnosis is not always easy, says the orthopaedic doctor in Delhi.
Knee pain due to rheumatism is usually inserted in a condition in which the patient reports polyarthralgia, that is, pain in multiple joints. The most frequent rheumatic pathology usually includes diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout (due to an increase in uric acid).
Currently, with the development of biological therapies, it is possible to control the progression of rheumatic disease, but in advanced cases of rheumatoid knee, for example, arthroplasty surgery (through the placement of a total knee prosthesis by knee replacement surgery in Delhi, similarly to what is done in osteoarthritis of the knee).) allows reducing pain and restoring the patient’s quality of life, says the orthopaedic surgeon in Delhi.
Patellar syndromes (what patients call a misaligned kneecap or kneecap out of place) are also a cause of knee pain. In extreme situations, patellar instability can result in kneecap dislocation.
Patellar syndromes normally affect young adults, requiring an adequate study of patellofemoral relationships. Strengthening and rebalancing the quadriceps muscles, namely the vastus internus oblique, are decisive in reducing the external hyper pressure of the kneecap, but surgery to realign the extensor apparatus may be necessary to reduce anterior knee pain and prevent progression to kneecap arthrosis, says the orthopaedic in Delhi.
Knee tendinitis usually causes pain at the insertion site of the inflamed tendon. They are most often located at the inferior pole of the patella, quadriceps insertion and the tendons of the pes anserinus. They usually force the patient to make ice, anti-inflammatories and rest for very variable periods, but generally have a good prognosis.
Knee bursitis is caused by inflammation of the bursae or synovial pouches around the knee. They usually result from long periods of placing the knees on the floor, as in certain professions or activities (maids, religious, floor laying, etc…) especially in the pre-patellar area or pre-tibial tuberosity.
Other causes of knee pain
Although we have presented the main causes of knee pain, other pathologies may be at its origin. Consult orthopaedic surgeon in Delhi to get the proper diagnosis and treatment.