Physiotherapeutic rehabilitation of meningitis: how to reduce the impact of sequelae
- October 4, 2022
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Meningitis has several etiologies, with bacterial meningitis being one of the most relevant causes. That’s because it usually has higher lethality. In addition, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in five patients lives with long-term bacterial meningitis sequelae. Some examples are hearing and vision loss, neurological sequelae and cognitive impairment.
Rehabilitation from damage requires the intervention of a physiotherapist in Dwarka. The professional’s approach can occur on several fronts, according to the needs of each individual.
Transmission and causes
Transmission of meningitis occurs through the respiratory tract. Thus, the infection can occur in contact with the droplets and respiratory secretions of the infected individual. Among bacterial meningitis, which causes about 250,000 annual deaths worldwide, pneumococcal meningitis has the highest fatality rate.
Sequelae of meningitis
Meningitis cases should be treated promptly, especially if they are bacterial in origin. It is possible that the patient has long-term sequelae, such as:
- Partial or total loss of hearing;
- Learning difficulties;
- Visual disturbances, such as partial or complete loss of vision;
- Delay in motor development, including difficulties with walking and balancing;
- Language disorder;
- Cognitive impairment;
- Urinary incontinence.
In this scenario, the best physiotherapist in Delhi is an important professional for both the prevention and treatment of the sequelae caused by the disease, especially in long-term cases. Physiotherapeutic monitoring is a way to add quality of life to the patient.
The physiotherapeutic approach in cases of meningitis
The focus of physical therapy treatment for meningitis is to improve the physical capabilities of the patient and reduce the impact of complications generated by the disease. In this sense, experts identified three types of treatment for these patients, aimed at improving:
- Physical function: prevents various physical complications, such as shortening, muscle weakness, and osteoarticular deformities. One of the proposed activities is hydrotherapy, a technique that can promote muscle relaxation, reduce spasms and increase the ease of joint movement.
- Maintenance of strength, endurance, and range of motion: aims to normalize muscle tone as necessary, using neuromuscular facilitation and inhibition, positioning, and mobilization as forms of treatment. In addition, gait training is recommended for motor planning and balance and resistance exercises when possible.
- Breathing: the application of respiratory physiotherapy techniques can prevent, reverse or minimize ventilatory dysfunctions. The modality becomes necessary in cases of meningitis caused by tuberculosis and pneumonia. Some techniques that can be used are manual hyperinflation and tracheal and upper airway aspiration.
Other techniques that can be used for the treatment and prevention of sequelae of meningitis are:
- Pulmonary expansion maneuvers (MEP);
- Vibrocompression (MVC);
- Tapotage (TP);
- Chest compression and decompression (MCD);
- Diaphragmatic proprioceptive stimulus (DPE);
- Bag Squeezing (MBS);
- Orotracheal cannula aspiration (ASP TOC);
- Respiratory muscle training with mechanical ventilator trigger (TMR);
- Motor kinesiotherapy with passive exercises of upper limbs (MMSS) and lower limbs (LL);
- Global stretches;
- Muscle strength training (MTR);
- Functional electrical stimulation (FES).