Prostate Cancer: Symptoms and Treatment options
- April 8, 2022
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Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men. An international research estimates that there are nearly 2 million cases of newly diagnosed prostate cancer in the world each year. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the world, with approximately 100,000 men dying each year.
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that is located in the male reproductive system in front of the rectum, just below the bladder. It surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder through the tip of the penis. Also, the nerves responsible for erections are located on both sides of the prostate. The main purpose of the prostate is to produce seminal fluid, which transports sperm during male orgasm. The normal prostate gland is quite small, weighing only about an ounce.
Prostate cancer occurs when a malignant tumor forms in the prostate gland. If left untreated, the cancer can grow and spread beyond the prostate to surrounding tissues and lymph nodes, as well as to distant parts of the body such as the bones, lungs, and liver.
- Age (most patients are older than 65 years)
- Family history
- Diets rich in red meat and high-fat dairy products and low in vegetables and fruits.
- physical inactivity
- Frequent urination, especially at night
- Difficulty starting or holding back urination
- Weak or unable to urinate
- pain when urinating
- painful ejaculation
- Difficulty having an erection
- Blood in semen or urine
- Pain in the lower back, hips, or thighs
Detection and diagnosis
If a patient has multiple symptoms or risk factors, the following tests may diagnose prostate cancer.
- PSA (prostate-specific antigen): PSA has been used as an indicator of early, potentially curable prostate cancer. Urologist in Ghaziabad can identify patients with undetectable prostate cancers by digital rectal exam with the help of a blood test.
- Computed Tomography and MRI: Computed Tomography (CT scan) is a series of detailed images of areas inside the body taken from different angles; the images are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a procedure that uses radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These two tests are used to assess whether the tumor has spread outside the confines of the prostate gland or into the lymph nodes around the prostate.
- Pelvic lymph node evaluation
- Radionuclide bone scan: A test used to see if prostate cancer has spread to the bone. This test is used to rule out metastases in the bony structure of the body.
Many factors affect the choice of a prostate cancer treatment in Delhi, including the stage of the cancer, the patient’s age, and general health.
Traditional surgery is the most common prostate cancer treatment in Noida, particularly for early-stage prostate cancers. By making an incision in the abdomen (radical retropubic prostatectomy) or between the scrotum and anus (radical perineal prostatectomy), the urologist in Noida can remove the entire prostate, including surrounding lymph nodes. Or, in a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the surgeon uses electricity generated at the end of a small instrument to remove just the cancerous portion of the prostate. Loss of bladder control and impotence are common side effects of prostate surgery.
Robotic Surgery Robotic
Prostatectomy a minimally invasive method of removing the prostate gland through advances in robotics and computer technology. By using the da Vinci robot, the best urologist in Noida has more precision, reducing the risk of incontinence and impotence for patients compared to standard prostate cancer surgery.
If the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, surgery may not be a practical option.
External beam radiation therapy kills cancer cells with intense x-rays directed only at the cancerous growth. With technological advances, particular medical equipment can emit radiation from outside the patient’s body, or radioactive materials can be placed internally in the target area. Patients may receive one or both forms of radiation therapy, depending on the size of the cancer.
Brachytherapy, it is the most advanced method of implanting radioactive seeds. This method uses the latest advances in computer calculation of internal seed placement for maximum effect and minimal side effects. The dose of each seed is customized at the time of surgery to fit the size of the individual prostate gland. In general, side effects of radiation therapy include extreme fatigue, although doctors recommend staying active throughout treatment. Patients may also experience painful or frequent urination, diarrhea, or impotence. External beam radiation often causes hair loss and skin irritations in the treatment area. Meanwhile, internal radiation is less likely to affect erectile function,
Hormone therapy can prevent prostate cancer cells from getting the male hormones they need to grow, even if they have spread to other parts of the body. Although it will not cure prostate cancer, hormone therapy can control it.
In cryotherapy, the prostate is quickly frozen to kill cancer cells. This procedure is done by placing probes into the prostate while the patient is under anesthesia. Survival data suggest that cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer is at least equal to seed implantation or external beam radiation therapy.
Surveillance for a disease process is an accepted alternative for those who wish to avoid or postpone the side effects of other forms of therapy. Good candidates for surveillance have a relatively short life expectancy, based on age and coexisting medical conditions. The disadvantage of surveillance is the risk of subsequent, possibly incurable, disease progression. In addition, surveillance places the patient at risk for complications of disease progression, such as pain, urinary obstruction, pathologic fractures, obstruction of the ureters, and spinal cord compression. Therefore, the option of surveillance must be weighed against the possible disadvantages of stopping treatment.